The intensity of radio waves and all electromagnetic waves diminishes with distance – there are many reasons for this which affect radio propagation.
Radio path loss is key factor in the design of any radio communications system or wireless system.
It is a fact that any radio signal will suffer attenuation when it travels from the transmitter to the receiver. A variety of different phenomena give rise to this radio path loss.
Understanding what causes radio path loss enables any system to be designed to perform to its best despite the various issues affecting it.
How does radio path loss affect systems
The radio signal path loss will determine many elements of the radio communications system in particular the transmitter power, and the antennas, especially their gain, height and general location. This is true for whatever frequency is used.
To be able to plan the system, it is necessary to understand the reasons for radio path loss, and to be able to determine the levels of the signal loss for a given radio path.
The radio path loss can often be determined mathematically and these calculations are often undertaken when preparing coverage or system design activities. These depend on a knowledge of the signal propagation properties.
Accordingly, radio path loss calculations are used in many radio and wireless survey tools for determining signal strength at various locations. These wireless survey tools are being increasingly used to help determine what radio signal strengths will be, before installing the equipment. For cellular operators radio coverage surveys are important because the investment in a macrocell base station is high. Also, wireless survey tools provide a very valuable service for applications such as installing wireless LAN systems in large offices and other centres because they enable problems to be solved before installation, enabling costs to be considerably reduced. Accordingly there is an increasing importance being placed onto wireless survey tools and software.
Radio path loss basics
The signal path loss is essentially the reduction in power density of an electromagnetic wave or signal as it propagates through the environment in which it is travelling.
There are many reasons for the radio path loss that may occur:
- Free space loss: The free space loss occurs as the signal travels through space without any other effects attenuating the signal it will still diminish as it spreads out. This can be thought of as the radio communications signal spreading out as an ever increasing sphere. As the signal has to cover a wider area, conservation of energy tells us that the energy in any given area will reduce as the area covered becomes larger.
- Diffraction: radio signal path loss due diffraction occurs when an object appears in the path. The signal can diffract around the object, but losses occur. The loss is higher the more rounded the object. Radio signals tend to diffract better around sharp edges, i.e. edges that are sharp with respect to the wavelength.
- Multipath: In a real terrestrial environment, signals will be reflected and they will reach the receiver via a number of different paths. These signals may add or subtract from each other depending upon the relative phases of the signals. If the receiver is moved the scenario will change and the overall received signal will be found vary with position. Mobile receivers (e.g. cellular telecommunications phones) will be subject to this effect which is known as Rayleigh fading.
- Absorption losses: Absorption losses occur if the radio signal passes into a medium which is not totally transparent to radio signals. There are many reasons for this which include:
- Buildings, walls, etc: When radio signals pass through dense materials such was walls, buildings or even furniture within a building, they suffer attenuation. It is particularly applicable to cellular communications – in buildings, houses, etc signals are considerably reduced. The radio signal attenuation is more pronounced for the higher frequency mobile bands., e.g. 2.2 GHz as opposed to 800 / 900 MHz.
- Atmospheric moisture: At high microwave frequencies radio path loss increases as a result of precipitation or even moisture in the air. The radio signal path loss may vary according to the weather conditions. However this typically only has a noticeable effect further into the microwave region.
- Vegetation: In dense forest it is found that signals even at lower frequencies are considerably reduced. This illustrates that vegetation can introduce considerable levels of radio path loss. Trees and foliage can attenuate radio signals, particularly when wet.
- Terrain: The terrain over which signals travel will have a significant effect on the signal. Obviously hills which obstruct the path will considerably attenuate the signal, often making reception impossible. Additionally at low frequencies the composition of the earth will have a marked effect. For example on the Long Wave band, it is found that signals travel best over more conductive terrain, e.g. sea paths or over areas that are marshy or damp. Dry sandy terrain gives higher levels of attenuation.
- Atmosphere: The atmosphere can affect radio signal paths.
- Ionosphere: At lower frequencies, especially below 30 - 50MHz, the ionosphere has a significant effect, reflecting (or more correctly refracting) them back to Earth. However when passing through some regions, especially the D region and to a lesser extent the E region, signals can suffer attenuation rather than reflection / refraction. This can introduce a significant radio path loss.
- Troposphere: At frequencies above 50 MHz and more the troposphere has a major effect, refracting the signals back to earth as a result of changing refractive index. For UHF broadcast this can extend coverage to approximately a third beyond the horizon. The refraction can sometimes mean that signal that would normally reach a certain area may be refracted away from it.
These reasons represent some of the major elements causing signal path loss for any radio system.
Predicting radio path loss
One of the key reasons for understanding the various elements affecting radio signal path loss is to be able to predict the loss for a given path, or to predict the coverage that may be achieved for a particular base station, broadcast station, etc.
Although prediction or assessment can be fairly accurate for the free space scenarios, for real life terrestrial applications it is not easy as there are many factors to take into consideration, and it is not always possible to gain accurate assessments of the effects they will have.
Despite this there are wireless survey tools and radio coverage prediction software programmes that are available to predict radio path loss and estimate coverage. A variety of methods are used to undertake this.
Free space path loss varies in strength as an inverse square law, i.e. 1/(range)2, or 20 dB per decade increase in range. This calculation is very simple to implement, but real life terrestrial calculations of signal path loss are far more involved. To show how a real life situation can alter the calculations, often mobile phone operators may modify the inverse square law to 1/(range)n where n may vary between 3.5 to 5 as a result of the buildings and other obstructions between the mobile phone and the base station.
Most path loss predictions are made using techniques outlined below:
- Statistical methods: Statistical methods of predicting signal path loss rely on measured and averaged losses for typical types of radio links. These figures are entered into the prediction model which is able to calculate the figures based around the data. A variety of models can be used dependent upon the application. This type of approach is normally used for planning cellular networks, estimating the coverage of PMR (Private Mobile Radio) links and for broadcast coverage planning.
- Deterministic approach: This approach to radio signal path loss and coverage prediction utilises the basic physical laws as the basis for the calculations. These methods need to take into consideration all the elements within a given area and although they tend to give more accurate results, they require much additional data and computational power. In view of their complexity, they tend to be used for short range links where the amount of required data falls within acceptable limits.
These wireless survey tools and radio coverage software packages are growing in their capabilities. However it is still necessary to have a good understanding of radio propagation so that the correct figures can be entered and the results interpreted satisfactorily.
For any given radio transmission, the radio path loss is likely to be caused by a number of different factors. This often makes accurate radio path loss calculations difficult. However even if they are not as accurate as might be always liked, the radio path loss calculations enable equipment to be designed to meet the requirements.
Free Space Path Loss: details & calculator
The simplest scenario for radio signal propagation is free space propagation model when a signal travels in free space.
The way the signal propagates and the path loss incurred provide a foundation for more complicated propagation models.
Although in most cases the free space propagation model details the way in which a radio signal travels in free space, when it is not under the influence of the many other external elements that affect propagation.
Free space propagation basics
The free space propagation model is the simplest scenario for the propagation of radio signals. Here they are considered to travel outwards from the point where they are radiated by the antenna.
The way in which they propagate can be likened to the ripples of waves on a pond that travel outwards from the point where a stone is dropped into a pond.
As the ripples move outwards their level reduces until they finally disappear to the eye.
In the case of radio signal propagation, the waves spread out in three dimensions rather than the two dimensions of the pond example.In telecommunication, free-space path loss (FSPL) is the loss in signal strength of an electromagnetic wave that would result from a line-of-sight path through free space (usually air), with no obstacles nearby to cause reflection or diffraction. It does not include factors such as the gain of the antennas used at the transmitter and receiver, nor any loss associated with hardware imperfections.
Free Space Loss
The Free Space Loss is an attenuation of the electromagnetic wave while propagating through space. We will consider the loss to be the same in air as in the vacuum of space. It is calculated using the following formula:
Free Space Loss = 32.4 + 20 x Log FMHz + 20 x Log RKm
where FMHz = the RF frequency expressed in MHz = 2,400 MHz for 802.11b systems
RKm = the distance in Kilometers between the transmitting and receiving antennas. The formula at 2.4 GHz is:
Free Space Loss = 100 + 20 x Log RKm
In the following figure, The distance (D) can be expressed in kilometers or miles, as we will discuss later in this section and consider the conversion factors between kilometers and miles.
The Free Space Loss is not usually a factor in the home and office wireless network, but can be a factor in linking separate buildings, and definitely should be included in a discussion of wireless link parameters. To calculate the loss in units of miles and megahertz, the equation becomes:
Free Space Loss = 36.6 + 20Log10(Frequency in MHz) + 20Log10(Distance in Miles)